76 Ājīvikas were atheists 77 and rejected the authority of the vedas, but they believed that in every living being is an ātman a central premise of Hinduism and jainism. 78 79 Ajñana edit Ajñana was a śramaṇa school of radical Indian skepticism and a rival of early buddhism and jainism. They held that it was impossible to obtain knowledge of metaphysical nature or ascertain the truth value of philosophical propositions; 80 and even if knowledge was possible, it was useless and disadvantageous for final salvation. They were seen as sophists who specialized in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own. 800 author of the skeptical work entitled Tattvopaplavasiṃha the lion that devours All Categories The Upsetting of All Principles has been seen as an important Ajñana philosopher. 81 sikh philosophy edit main article: sikh religious philosophy sikhism is an Indian religion developed by guru nanak (14691539) in the punjab region during the mughal Era. Their main sacred text is the guru Granth Sahib.
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68 They declared the vedas to be incoherent rhapsodies invented by man whose only usefulness was to provide livelihood to priests. 69 likewise they faulted Buddhists and how jains, mocking the concept of liberation, reincarnation and accumulation of merit or demerit through karma. 70 They believed that, the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools". 68 Cārvāka epistemology holds perception as the primary source of knowledge, while rejecting inference which can be invalid. 71 The primary texts of Cārvāka, like the barhaspatya sutras (ca. 600 bce) have been lost. 72 Ājīvika edit Ājīvika was founded by makkhali gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early buddhism and jainism. 73 Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost. Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Hindu Indian literature, particularly those of jainism and Buddhism which polemically criticized the Ajivikas. 74 The Ājīvika school is known for its niyati doctrine of absolute determinism (fate the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles. 74 75 Ājīvika considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy.
63 It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies. 64 jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions; and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation. 65 The contribution of the jains in the development of Indian philosophy has been significant. Jain philosophical concepts like ahimsa, karma, moksa, samsara and the like are common with other Indian religions like hinduism and Buddhism in various forms. 66 While jainism traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira and other Tirthankaras, various jain philosophers from Kundakunda and Umasvati in ancient times to yasovijaya and Shrimad Rajchandra in recent times have contributed to Indian philosophical discourse in uniquely jain ways. Cārvāka edit cārvāka or lokāyata was an atheistic essay philosophy of scepticism and materialism, who rejected the vedas and all associated supernatural doctrines. 67 Cārvāka philosophers like brihaspati were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. Cārvāka deemed the vedas to be tainted by the three faults of untruth, self-contradiction, and tautology.
57 Notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were jainism, early buddhism, cārvāka, ajñana and Ājīvika. 58 jain philosophy edit jain philosophy deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics, reality, cosmology, ontology, epistemology and divinity. Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India. 59 :182 It continues the ancient Śramaṇa tradition, which co-existed with the vedic tradition since ancient times. 60 nationalism 61 The distinguishing features of jain philosophy includes a mind-body dualism, denial of a creative and omnipotent God, karma, an eternal and uncreated universe, non-violence, the theory of the multiple facets of truth, and a morality based on liberation of the soul. Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation. 62 It has often been described as an ascetic movement for its strong emphasis on self-control, austerities and renunciation.
The mīmāṃsā school strongly influenced Vedānta which was also known as Uttara-mīmāṃsā, however while mīmāṃsā emphasized karmakāṇḍa, or the study of ritual actions, using the four early vedas, the vedānta schools emphasized jñanakāṇḍa, the study of knowledge, using the later parts of Vedas like the. 50 Vedānta edit vedānta (meaning "end of the vedas or Uttara-mīmāṃsā, are a group of traditions which focus on the philosophical issues found in the Prasthanatrayi (the three sources which are the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. 54 Vedānta sees the vedas, particularly the Upanishads, as a reliable source of knowledge. The central concern for these schools is the nature of and relationship between Brahman ( ultimate reality, universal consciousness ātman ( individual soul ) and Prakriti (empirical world). The sub-traditions of Vedānta include Advaita (non-dualism vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualism dvaita (dualism) and Bhedabheda (difference and non-difference). 55 due the popularity of the bhakti movement, vedānta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. Other edit While the classical enumeration of Indian philosophies lists six orthodox schools, there are other schools which are sometimes seen as orthodox. These include: 34 Heterodox or Śramaṇic schools edit main article: Śramaṇa The nāstika or heterodox schools are associated with the non-vedic Śramaṇic traditions that existed in India since before the 6th century bce. 56 The Śramaṇa movement gave rise to diverse range of non-vedic ideas, ranging from accepting or denying the concepts of atman, atomism, materialism, atheism, agnosticism, fatalism to free will, extreme asceticism, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism.
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Later vaiśeṣika s ( Śrīdhara and Udayana and śivāditya ) added one more category abhava (non-existence). The first three categories are defined as artha (which can perceived) and they have real objective existence. The last three categories are defined as budhyapekṣam (product of intellectual discrimination) and they are logical submit categories. 49 Mīmāṃsā edit mīmāṃsā is a school of ritual orthopraxy and is known for its hermeneutical study and interpretation of the vedas. 50 For this tradition, the study of dharma as rituals and social duties was paramount.
They also held that the vedas were "eternal, authorless, and infallible" and that Vedic injunctions and mantras in rituals are prescriptive actions of primary importance. 50 Because of their focus on textual study and interpretation, mīmāṃsā also developed theories of philology and the philosophy of language which influenced other Indian schools. 51 They primarily held that the purpose of language was to clearly prescribe proper actions, rituals and correct dharma (duty or virtue). 52 Mīmāṃsā is also mainly atheistic, holding that the evidence for the existence of God is insufficient and that the gods named in the vedas have no existence apart from the names, mantras and their power. 53 a key text of the mīmāṃsā school is the mīmāṃsā sūtra of jaimini and major Mīmāṃsā cholars include Prabhākara (c. 7th century) and Kumārila Bhaṭa (.
14th century ce sāmkhya continued to develop throughout the medieval period. Nyāya edit The nyāya school of epistemology, explores sources of knowledge ( Pramāṇa ) and is based on the nyāya sūtras (circa 6th-century bce and 2nd-century ce). 43 nyāya holds that human suffering arises out of ignorance and liberation arises through correct knowledge. Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct knowledge or epistemology. Nyāya traditionally accepts four Pramanas as reliable means of gaining knowledge pratyakṣa (perception Anumāṇa (inference upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) and Śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts). 42 nyāya also traditionally defended a form of philosophical realism.
44 The nyāya sūtras was a very influential text in Indian philosophy, laying the foundations for classical Indian epistemological debates between the different philosophical schools. It includes, for example, the classic Hindu rejoinders against Buddhist not-self ( anatta ) arguments. 45 The work also famously argues against a creator God ( Ishvara 46 a debate which became central to hinduism in the medieval period. Vaiśeṣika edit vaiśeṣika is a naturalist school of atomism, which accepts only two sources of knowledge, perception and inference. 47 This philosophy held that the universe was reducible to paramāṇu ( atoms which are indestructible ( anitya indivisible, and have a special kind of dimension, called small ( aṇu ). Whatever we experience is a composite of these atoms. 48 vaiśeṣika organized all objects of experience into what they called padārtha s (literally: 'the meaning of a word which included six categories; dravya (substance guṇa (quality karma (activity sāmānya (generality viśeṣa (particularity) and samavāya (inherence).
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The samkhya school traditionally traces itself back to sage kapila. Sāmkhya is a dualist philosophical tradition based on the samkhyakarika (circa 320-540 ce 38 while the yoga school was a closely related tradition emphasizing meditation and liberation whose major text is the yoga sutras (c. 39 Elements of proto-samkhya ideas can however be traced back all the way to the period of the early Upanishads. 40 One of the main differences between the two closely related schools was that Yoga allowed for the existence of a god, while most Sāmkhya thinkers criticized this idea. 41 Sāmkhya epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge; pratyakṣa ( retrolisthesis perception anumāṇa ( inference ) and śabda (word/testimony of reliable sources). 42 The school developed a complex theoretical exposition of the evolution of consciousness and matter. Sāmkhya sources argue that the universe consists of two realities, puruṣa ( consciousness ) and prakṛti ( matter ). As shown by the sākhyapravacana sūtra (c.
32 33 There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy — nyaya, vaisheshika, samkhya, yoga, mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools— jain, buddhist, ajivika, ajñana, and Cārvāka. However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Hindu Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the śaiva and Raseśvara traditions. 34 35 Each school of Hindu philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called Pramana -sastras. 36 37 In Hindu history, the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the gupta period "golden age" of Hinduism. With the disappearance of vaisheshika and Mīmāṃsā, it became obsolete by the later Middle Ages, when the various sub-schools short of Vedanta ( dvaita "dualism Advaita vedanta "non-dualism" and others) began to rise to prominence as the main divisions of religious philosophy. Nyaya survived into the 17th century as navya nyaya "neo-nyaya while samkhya gradually lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into yoga and Vedanta. Sāmkhya and Yoga edit king Amsuman and the yogic sage kapila.
logic and investigated topics such as Ontology ( metaphysics, brahman - atman, sunyata - anatta reliable means of knowledge ( epistemology, pramanas value system ( axiology ) and other topics. Indian philosophy also covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra. 4th century bce and the philosophy of love as seen in the kama sutra. Later developments include the development of Tantra and Iranian-Islamic influences. Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the himalayan regions and south India. 30 The early modern period saw the flourishing of navya-nyāya (the 'new reason under philosophers such as Raghunatha siromani (c. 14601540) who founded the tradition, jayarama pancanana, mahadeva punatamakara and Yashovijaya (who formulated a jain response). 31 Orthodox schools edit The principal Indian philosophical schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox āstika or nāstika depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the vedas are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises.
8 Hindu thought also spread east to the Indonesian Srivijaya empire and the cambodian Khmer Empire. These religio-philosophical traditions were later grouped under the label Hinduism. Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, note 1 in south Asia. It includes Shaivism, vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Hinduism, with about one billion essays followers 13 is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. Hinduism has been called the " oldest religion " in the world, and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law " or the "eternal way beyond human origins. Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion note 2 or synthesis note 3 of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots note 4 and no single founder.
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For the album by Apathy, see. Eastern philosophy or, asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in, east and, south Asia including, chinese philosophy, japanese philosophy, and. Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia, and. Indian philosophy (including, buddhist philosophy ) which are dominant in, south Asia, southeast Asia, and. 1 2, contents, indian philosophies edit, further information: Indian philosophy, main articles: Hinduism and, hindu philosophy. Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions sanskrit : darśana ; 'world views 'teachings 3 of the Indian subcontinent. Jainism has its roots from the Indus Valley civilization, reflecting native (pre-vedic) spirituality prior to the Indo-Aryan migration into India. 4 5 6 The major orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the common Era and the gupta Empire. 7 These hindu schools developed what has been and called the "Hindu synthesis" merging orthodox Brahmanical and unorthodox elements from Buddhism and jainism.